Frequently Asked Questions About Mammography and Breast Cancer
- What is a Mammogram?
- Why is Mammography Sometimes Uncomfortable?
- When Should I Get a Mammogram?
- Do I Need a Referral (Prescription) to Receive Mammography?
- Does a Mammogram Take the Place of a Manual Breast Examination?
- What is a Baseline Mammogram?
- How Long do Mammography Examinations Take?
- What is a Cleavage View?
- Do I Need a Mammogram if I have Breast Implants?
- Can X-ray Mammograms Cause Cancer?
- Where Can I Find a Mammography Facility?
- How Much does a Mammogram Cost?
- How Often Should I Receive a Mammogram?
- Why Aren't Mammograms Recommended for Women Under Age 40?
- Why Aren't Ultrasound, MRI, or Other Tests Used to Screen for Breast Cancer?
- Why is Mammography Not 100% Accurate?
- Is Digital Mammography Better Than Standard Film Mammography?
- What Does "in situ" Mean?
- What are Metastases?
- What are Calcifications?
- What is a Cyst?
- What is Fibroadenoma (FA)?
- What is Fibrocystic Breast Change?
- My Breasts are Lumpy. Do I Still Need to Examine Them?
- What Can I do to Lower My Risk of Breast Cancer?
Physicians do not generally recommend that women under age 40 receive annual screening mammograms because younger women tend to have more dense breast tissue. This breast density shows up on mammogram films as white areas, just as breast cancer does. Therefore, it is difficult for physicians to detect breast cancer in women with dense breasts. As women reach menopause, their breasts become less dense, making it easier to interpret their mammograms. Women under age 40 should still practice monthly breast self-exams and receive physician-performed clinical breast exams at least every three years. If an abnormality is detected with physical exam in a patient of any age, she may receive a diagnostic mammogram, ultrasound or other breast imaging exam to further investigate the abnormality.
Currently, mammography is the only exam approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to help screen for breast cancer in women with no signs of the disease (such as a lump). Mammography helps detect approximately 85% of all breast cancers and has contributed to a 2% annual decline in breast cancer deaths in the past 10 years. While ultrasound, magnetic resonance (MRI) breast imaging, and other tests may be helpful when further investigating an abnormality first detected with mammography or physical exam, these supplemental exams are not FDA approved as screening tools because of the limitations listed the chart below.
|Ultrasound||Good contrast resolution, excellent for identifying non-cancerous cysts or dense mass.||Lacks spatial resolution, operator dependent, cannot detect calcifications (may indicate cancer).|
|Breast MRI||Good at imaging dense breasts, implants or small lesions, helps stage extent of cancer.||Long and costly exam, difficult to differentiate between cancerous and benign lesions, cannot detect calcifications.|
It is estimated that mammograms can detect approximately 85-90% of all breast cancers. While the vast majority of abnormalities are detected by mammography, there are some that are simply not detectable. Sometimes an irregularity goes undetected because surrounding breast tissue is the same density as the irregular tissue. The goal of mammography is to try to identify women who have breast cancer but are unaware of it (asymptomatic women). If a patient has a lump or other change and the mammogram is "negative" (interpreted as not suspicious or cancerous), the patient should pursue that finding further with her doctor. In some cases, a lump that is not suspicious on a mammogram may be followed up with clinical breast exam or a follow-up mammogram in six months instead of the normal twelve.
A negative mammogram report should not be interpreted as meaning that there is no chance of breast cancer. It also does not mean that the breasts are "normal". Many (if not most) breasts contain "abnormalities" such as calcifications or masses. It is only when these areas show changes sufficiently different from the average patient that the mammogram is interpreted as "abnormal." That is why regular mammography and comparison with prior films is critical.
Breast cancer starts as a few malignant cells and generally takes years to grow to a detectable state. Often, radiologists may watch an area on a mammogram for change over several years to demonstrate that an initially benign-appearing area has a reasonable chance of malignancy that requires biopsy. To remove the uncertainty in determining whether each area is benign or cancerous would require many more biopsies to be performed. Performing more biopsies would add a great deal of worry, discomfort, and potential complications to a large number of women (who do not have breast cancer) while only detecting a very small number of additional cancers.
One of the most recent advances in x-ray mammography is digital mammography. Digital (computerized) mammography is similar to standard mammography in that x-rays are used to produce detailed images of the breast. Digital mammography uses essentially the same mammography system as conventional mammography, but the system is equipped with a digital receptor and a computer instead of a film cassette. Studies of digital mammography and standard film mammography have shown that digital mammography is "comparable" to standard film mammography in terms of detecting breast cancer. To date, studies have not shown that digital mammography allows radiologists to detect more breast cancers than if they use standard mammography systems.
In the future, digital mammography may provide many benefits over standard mammography equipment. These benefits include:
- improved contrast between dense and non-dense breast tissue
- faster image acquisition
- shorter exam time
- easier image storage
- physician manipulation of breast images for more accurate detection of breast cancer
- transmittal of images over phone lines or a network for remote consultation with other physicians
While digital mammography is quite promising, it still has additional hurdles to undergo before it can become a suitable replacement for standard film mammography. Digital mammography must: provide higher detail resolution (as standard mammography does), become less expensive (digital mammography is currently several times more costly than conventional mammography), and provide a method to efficiently compare digital mammogram images with existing mammography films on computer monitors.
The term "in situ" is used to indicate an early stage of cancer in which a tumor is confined to the immediate area where it began. Specifically in breast cancer, in situ means that the cancer remains confined to ducts or lobules, and it has neither invaded the surrounding tissue in the breast nor spread to other organs in the body. Ductal carcinoma is situ (DCIS) is the most common type of non-invasive breast cancer.
Metastases are satellite tumors that indicate a breast cancer has spread from the site where it began (referred to as the primary cancer) to a lymph node or a distant organ, such as the lung, liver, or brain.
Calcifications (also called microcalcifications) are mineral deposits in the breast that may be caused by dried-up secretions, trauma to the breast, resorbed blood, or dead tissue cells. These small calcium deposits are often found in clusters by a mammogram. Dietary calcium levels do not have any relationship to breast calcifications. If a woman has calcifications in the breast she may continue calcium supplements which can be helpful in preventing bone loss, osteoporosis and fracture. Calcifications are not equivalent to cancer. But they are signs of changes within the breast, and certain patterns of calcifications can be associated with cancer or benign breast disease.
Cysts are harmless accumulations of fluid in the breast (or other tissue or organs). The exact causes of cysts are not known, but cysts are known to change with hormonal variations, either during normal menstrual cycles or from post-menopausal hormone replacement. Contrary to popular belief, caffeine has no proven effect on cysts. Cysts do not become cancer or increase the risk of cancer. Most of the time, cysts may be left alone, but sometimes a physician may drain them with a small needle.
Fibroadenoma is the most common benign, solid growth in the breasts. Fibroadenoma is round, movable, and firm. Fibroadenoma has no significant risk of becoming cancer and does not put a patient at increased risk of breast cancer.
Fibrocystic breast change (also called fibrocystic disease) is single or multiple lumps in the breasts. The lumps are often harmless and fairly common. Often the term fibrocystic breast disease refers to normal, dense fibroglandular tissue. Fibrocystic disease is a term that is often misused in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. In fact, there is usually no actual disease. Fibrocystic disease can only be diagnosed after biopsy or needle aspiration of the lumps. Fibrocystic change in most women is common.
Yes. While lumpy breasts or breasts with many masses or cysts can be very difficult to examine, monthly breast self examination (BSE) is still critical. Even if a woman has lumpy breasts, she can learn the usual pattern of lumps and bumps and then point out new or unusual lumps to her doctor. In fact, without knowledgeable direction from a patient, it may be impossible for a physician to differentiate a new mass from stable lumps.
There are many breast cancer risk factors that cannot be controlled such as genetics, early menstruation and family history. Other aspects such diet, early child-bearing, and weight can be controlled to help reduce the risk of breast cancer. Click here to learn more about the various risk factors for breast cancer and for information on a new tool to help determine a woman's breast cancer risk.