Breast Cancer and Pregnancy
- Breast Changes During Pregnancy and Lactation (Breast-Feeding)
- Breast Health Guidelines During Pregnancy
- Evaluating a Breast Abnormality During Pregnancy
- Evaluating a Breast Abnormality During Lactation (Breast-Feeding)
- A Breast Cancer Diagnosis During Pregnancy
- Pregnancy After Breast Cancer
- Additional Resources and References
If a worrisome breast lump or abnormality is found after birth when a woman is breast-feeding, diagnostic mammography and/or other breast imaging exams should not be delayed. Mammography is considered safe and can be accurate for women who are breast-feeding when performed with care. Some suggest that the breast should be completely emptied of milk immediately before the mammogram, either via nursing or breast pump. This decreases the density through which the x-rays must penetrate and helps improve image quality.
It is important to keep in mind that imaging tests are not foolproof and may not detect a mass even when it can be felt during a physical examination. Approximately 10% to 15% of breast masses are missed with mammography or ultrasound (sonography) in women who are not lactating, and this percentage can be as high as 25% in the denser, larger, lactating breast. For this reason, a breast abnormality detected during lactation will often need to be biopsied to determine whether it is cancerous or benign.
Fine needle aspiration (FNA) involves using a thin needle to sample fluid or cells from the breast. FNA is often used to identify or drain cysts (collections of fluid). Other biopsy methods, such as core needle biopsy or open surgical biopsy, can also be performed safely. However, these more invasive methods are usually reserved for cases when the diagnosis cannot be made by other, less invasive means. This is because milk fistulas (abnormal passages of milk) or collections of milk in the breast may result when a biopsy is performed on a lactating breast. Nevertheless, milk fistulas are rarely a problem and are more of an inconvenience compared with the more dangerous possibility of an undiagnosed breast cancer. If a biopsy is performed and a collection of milk does result, it can easily be drained by fine needle aspiration in the physicians office.
Most of the breast problems encountered during breast-feeding are inflammatory or infectious complications rather than breast cancer. Nasopharyngeal organisms (such as a cold virus) from the infants mouth, sinuses, and other air passages can be a common source of infection in breast-feeding women.
Common breast-feeding problems include:
- Inadequate milk supply
- Blocked milk duct
- Breast engorgement
- Breast mastitis (infection)
- Nipple discharge
- Nipple confusion
- Breast pain
- Nipple soreness
- Inverted or flat nipples
Click here for more information about these problems and how they can be treated.
While a diagnosis of breast cancer during pregnancy can be quite distressful, it is not necessary to terminate the pregnancy unless the woman chooses. A womans chances of surviving breast cancer are the same regardless of whether the pregnancy is terminated or not, although more treatment options may be available if the pregnancy is ended. The occurrence of breast cancer itself during pregnancy does not appear to harm the fetus. However, some of the tests and treatments may increase the risk of malformation or miscarriage of the fetus; the risk varies depending on the stage (trimester) of the pregnancy.
It is not necessary to terminate the pregnancy if breast cancer is diagnosed.
If a pregnant woman is diagnosed with breast cancer, her team of cancer specialists will first need to determine the stage of the cancer. Staging breast cancer includes accurately measuring the size of the tumor and the extent to which it may have spread within the breast and/or to other locations. In addition to imaging exams such as ultrasound (sonograms), blood tests will typically be performed to determine whether the cancer has spread to other organs in the body (such as the bone, liver, or lung). In some cases, physicians may test for breast cancer markers, such as CEA or CA 15-3, which may be elevated in women with breast cancer. However, blood markers may be less accurate in early-stage breast cancers or in pregnant women and may not be helpful. While chest x-rays are performed during pregnancy to determine whether the cancer has spread to the lungs and other areas, certain tests such as CT scans are not typically performed on pregnant women because of their higher radiation exposure.
The treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy should not be delayed unless a woman is within 2 to 3 weeks from her delivery date. Radiation, chemotherapy, and drug therapy are not typically given during pregnancy because they can potentially harm the fetus. However, recent studies show that women who receive chemotherapy during the second or third trimesters of pregnancy (after the first three months) still have good chances of having healthy babies. In more than one study, women who received chemotherapy during the second or third trimesters of pregnancy had live births and only a few had complications from the chemotherapy, such as early labor and low birth weight. However, the long-term effects of exposure to chemotherapy drugs during pregnancy are less well-studied and should be discussed in detail with treating physicians.
Surgery is commonly performed during pregnancy for a variety of conditions, and if proper care is taken during anesthesia and after surgery, generally no harm comes to the fetus. Typically, a mastectomy is recommended if breast cancer is diagnosed during the first or second trimester of pregnancy (the first six months). Mastectomy involves surgically removing the entire breast and often some or all of the axillary (underarm) lymph nodes. Mastectomy often prevents the need for radiation treatment. Chemotherapy or drug therapy is typically delayed until later in the pregnancy or after delivery, although the risks and benefits must be carefully weighted.
If breast cancer is diagnosed during the third trimester of pregnancy (the final three months), either mastectomy or breast-conserving therapy (i.e., lumpectomy) with lymph node removal may be performed as needed. Lumpectomy involves only removing the cancerous tumor and a surrounding margin of normal breast tissue. Radiation, chemotherapy, or drug therapy is usually delayed until after childbirth. Women who receive chemotherapy or other drug therapies after childbirth should not breast-feed because the drugs could be passed through the breast milk. Breast reconstruction is not typically performed until after childbirth and lactation, when the breasts return to their normal size and milk production has ceased completely.
A number of women who have successfully undergone treatment for breast cancer wish to have further pregnancies. Stage for stage, breast cancer during pregnancy has a similar prognosis (outcome) to that of breast cancer in young, non-pregnant women. According to recent studies, women who have been successfully treated for breast cancer in the past do not usually experience fertility problems unless chemotherapy is administered as part of the treatment. Pre-menopausal women treated with chemotherapy should be aware that the treatment can cause infertility and/or premature menopause, especially in older pre-menopausal woman (typically in their forties) who are already naturally less fertile and closer to menopause. The hormonal and metabolic changes that occur during pregnancy do not typically pose any increased risk of recurrent breast cancer, although studies in this area continue.
One study led by Dr. Priscilla Velentgas of the University of Seattle found that women who became pregnant after being diagnosed with Stage I or Stage II invasive breast cancer were not at greater risk of recurrent breast cancer than survivors that did not become pregnant. Further research has since confirmed the study. Additionally, neither the number of pregnancies nor the time lapsed between treatment for breast cancer and pregnancy appear to have any noticeable effect on long-term breast cancer prognosis.
For women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer, pregnancy is usually reasonable two or more years after diagnosis and treatment. However, some women may be advised to have children sooner if they are older and there are other considerations. Several details such as cancer type, degree of metastasis (spread), and amount of radiation and/or chemotherapy received should be considered before advising a woman whether it is safe to become pregnant after breast cancer. For example, those at higher risk for an early recurrence may be advised to wait and be closely observed prior to attempting a pregnancy. If a pregnancy is successful after having been treated for breast cancer, some women who have had radiation therapy on one breast find that a sufficient amount of milk for breast-feeding cannot be produced by the irradiated (treated) breast. However, the other, normal breast can often produce enough milk to enable breast-feeding.
Women with Stage IV (metastatic) breast cancer or recurrent tumors may not be good candidates for future pregnancies. Chemotherapy may also have an adverse effect on the ovaries and lead to fertility problems or a higher rate of spontaneous miscarriages. However, each individual is different, and all pre-menopausal women should discuss the issue of future pregnancies with their physicians before their initial breast cancer treatment if they are interested in having children after treatment. In some cases, women may wish to consider banking eggs prior to treatment (particularly chemotherapy) if they wish to have children in the future.
- Lois F. Grady, MD, et al. A Practical Approach to Breast Disease, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1995, pp.231-238.
- To learn more about evaluating a breast lump, please visit http://www.imaginis.com/breasthealth/lump.asp
- To learn more about breast cancer treatment options, please visit http://www.imaginis.com/breasthealth/treatment.asp
Updated: November 13, 2007