- Inadequate Milk Supply
- Blocked Milk Duct
- Breast Engorgement
- Breast Mastitis
- Nipple Discharge
- Nipple Confusion
- Breast Pain
- Nipple Soreness
- Inverted or Flat Nipples
- Additional Resources and References
It is fairly common for the breasts to discharge small amounts of blood during pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy and lactation, breast tissue grows rapidly. Rapid tissue growth can lead to irritation of the breast ducts, causing bloody nipple discharge. This discharge should not interfere with breast-feeding. If the discharge persists after breast-feeding has stopped or is particularly bothersome, it should be further evaluated by a physician. Click here to learn more about nipple discharge.
Nipple confusion can occur during the first few weeks after childbirth. The baby becomes confused between the mothers nipple and an artificial nipple of a bottle. Babies with nipple confusion will not latch on to the mothers nipple and become fussy when a mother tries to breast-feed. The best way to avoid and treat nipple confusion is to delay the introduction of bottles until a few weeks after childbirth.
While 80% of women experience mild breast pain during the first few days of breast-feeding, pain usually subsides within a few weeks. Chronic breast pain during nursing should be reported to a physician or certified lactation consultant for clinical evaluation.
Persistent breast pain while nursing may result from:
- Improper positioning. Leaning over the baby can lead to breast and back pain.
- Strong milk ejection reflexes. The actual process of expelling milk from the breast is called milk-ejection reflex (or let-down). Milk is ejected from the breast into the babys mouth. Normally, women feel a mild tingling sensation during milk ejection. However, some women have strong milk ejection reflexes and experience a painful tingling or stinging sensation during breast-feeding. This usually subsides after the first few weeks of nursing.
- Nipple blanching (also called vasospasm). The nipples turn white during and often in between breast-feeding. Many women report burning sensations in the nipples. Nipple blanching may be relieved with warm compresses and good breast support.
- Mastitis (breast infection).
Nipple soreness is common during the first few days of breast-feeding but usually subsides soon thereafter. If a woman is experiencing persistent nipple pain, she should consult a physician or certified lactation consultant.
Sore nipples are usually not related to how often or how long a woman breast-feeds her child. Rather, sore nipples are most commonly caused by improper positioning. The baby needs to take in approximately one inch of the areola (pigmented region surrounding the nipple) when feeding on the mothers nipple.
Techniques that may help reduce sore nipples include:
- Changing positions at each feeding.
- Breast-feed often for shorter intervals.
- Ask a physician about taking over the counter acetaminophens such as Tylenol to relieve discomfort.
Sore nipples may also result from a problem with the babys mouth such as thrush. Thrush is a yeast infection. See the section below on thrush for more information.
Rarely, a babys receding chin or a short frenulum in the babys mouth causes sore nipples. The frenulum is the small band of tissue that connects the underside of the tongue to the floor of the mouth. If the frenulum is too short, the baby is not able to grab the nipple properly with his mouth. He or she will grab the nipple with the tongue, causing soreness. If this is the case, some physicians will clip the babys frenulum to loosen the tongue. The procedure is quick and does not cause much pain to the baby. Other physicians feel this procedure is not necessary. If the baby has a receding chin, sore nipples can usually be avoided if the baby is nursed in alternate breast-feeding positions.
Many women have inverted or flat nipples and do not know it because the nipples will only turn inwards or flatten in the babys mouth. To determine whether a woman has inverted or flat nipples, she can cup her hand under her breast and press the breast together at the areola tissue (the pigmented region surrounding the nipple). If the nipple turns inward or flattens, the nipples are inverted or flattened.
The most common way to correct inverted or flat nipples is to use breast shells before or in between feedings. Plastic shells are worn directly on the breasts, and the nipple shows through a hole. Shells help control the tissue around the nipple and cause the nipple to push forward instead of inward. Women should talk to their physicians before using breast shells.
Thrush is a yeast infection that develops in the babys mouth and is characterized by white patches on the babys tongue, gums, and cheeks inside the mouth. Thrush may also appear as a red rash or dots on the babys behind. Thrush most commonly results from antibiotics taken by the mother or baby. Thrush can be treated by over the counter medications such as nystatin ointment. Mothers should talk to their physicians on how best to treat thrush.
If the baby has thrush, everything that enters the babys mouth (except the breast) must be sterilized, including pacifiers, breast pump parts, or toys the baby may chew on.
Jaundice is an accumulation of bilirubin, a yellowish pigment, in the babys blood. The skin of a baby with jaundice may be slightly yellow in color. Jaundice is common and is usually not serious. Babies are usually treated under bilirubin lights immediately after birth if they have jaundice. Another type of jaundice called late-onset or breast milk jaundice may occur several days after birth.
New research has shown that breast-feeding may not need to be stopped while a baby has jaundice. Babies who are being treated with bilirubin lights can usually be feed bottled breast milk during treatment.
- So That's What They're For: Breastfeeding Basics by Janet Tamaro (1998) provides extensive information on breast-feeding in an easy-to-read, comprehensive, and humorous format. Click here for pricing and ordering information.
- For additional resources, please visit the breast-feeding section of the Imaginis.com Breast Health Bookstore at http://www.imaginis.com/bookstore/breasthealth/nursing.asp
Updated: June 29, 2008